Katazome – Stencil dyeing

Katazome, is a Japanese method of dyeing fabrics using a resist paste applied through a stencil. With this kind of resist dyeing, a rice flour mixture is applied using a brush or spatula.  Pigment, or dye, is then applied by hand-painting, immersion or both.  Where the paste mixture covers and permeates the cloth, dye will not penetrate. One of the biggest attractions of katazome was that it provides and inexpensive way for an over-all pattern.
Traditional katazome is quite labour intensive.

Traditional Katazome Stencil cutting

Stencil:
In traditional Katazome, the stencil is made by bonding multiple layers of mulberry paper together and waterproofing with persimmon tannin, resulting in a strong, flexible brown colored paper.  The intricate designs are then cut by hand with a knife. The resulting stencil is stabilized by overlaying with a fine net of silk.
This seemed way too complicated and time consuming.  So, I decided to use an existing plastic stencil for my first trial. For additional stencils, I used my Cameo to cut custom designs.

Nori Paste applied through a plastic stencil.
Far left shows Elmer’s School Glue drawn on.

Paste Resist:
Traditional Katazome paste is made using a complicated process (John Marshall has a very good description at http://www.johnmarshall.to/H-Resist.htm). While checking on-line for easier methods of making the paste resist, I found that Amazon carries a type of glue called Nori Glue that is made from rice and is water soluble.  I purchase some and found that it was an inexpensive, easy and satisfactory paste resist.
I also tried Elmer’s school glue.  This works well as a resist for drawing but was not a good stencil resist.

Resulting fabric after dyeing with Purple Procion dye.

I liked this technique.  So, I decided to try making some scarves.

Custom Stencil cut with Cameo

 

Technique:

  • Rayon gauze  12″ x 90″.
  • Tape stencil and apply Nori Paste
  • Dry overnight.
  • Dip in dye (Lilac) to create Ombre effect.
  • Rinse, wash with Blue Dawn and dry.
Dyed Fabric

 

Resulting Scarf
Green Scarf

 

Magenta Scarf

Nui Shibori

Nui (Japanese for sewing) involves using a simple running stitch to pull the fabric tightly together. The thread is secured with a knot before dyeing. The technique allows for greater control of the pattern but is much more time consuming.

Trial #1
1. Fabric cut 12″ x 90″.

2. Sew six sets of lines (each set includes two lines 1/4″ apart) each 1″ apart.

3. Pull the threads tight and tie knots.

4. Place the bound fabric in the bottom of a flat container.  Add Mixing Red dye (500 ml at 5 mg/ml).

4. Batch for 2 hours.

5. Rinse out excess dye with cold water. Wash with Blue Dawn in hot water.  Resulting scarf is shown above.

Trial #2
1. Fabric cut 12″ x 90″.

2. Sew zig-zag lines lines each 2″ apart.

3. Pull the threads tight and tie knots.

4. On each side of the pulled and bound fabric, paint on Golden Yellow and Green (4 mg/ml, 100 ml total).

5. Batch for 2 hours.

6. Rinse out excess dye with cold water. Wash with Blue Dawn in hot water.

Kumo and Kanoko Shibori

Today’s shibori techniques – Kumo and Kanoko.

Kumo (Japanese for spider) is a twist and bind resist technique. It involves binding fabric around objects or by pleating sections of the fabric very finely and evenly. The result is a very specific spider-like design.

Trial #1
1. Fabric cut 12″ x 90″.

2. Place a small pony bead on the fabric and bind with a 1/4″ rubber band (Orthodontic elastic). Continue binding beads to create the pattern that you would like.


3. Place the bound fabric in the bottom of a flat container.  Add Royal Blue dye (500 ml at 5 mg/ml).

4. Batch for 2 hours.

5. Rinse out excess dye with cold water. Wash with Blue Dawn in hot water.

Trial #2
1. Fabric cut 12″ x 90″.

2. Pull up sections of the fabric at one end of the piece and bind tightly with synthetic sinew. Fold and bind a larger section of fabric at the other end of the piece.


3. Place the bound fabric in the bottom of a container.  Add Lilac dye (500 ml at 3 mg/ml).

4. Batch for 2 hours.

5. Rinse out excess dye with cold water. Wash with Blue Dawn in hot water.  Resulting scarf is shown above.

Kanoko is what is commonly thought of as tie-dye. It involves binding certain sections of the cloth to achieve the desired pattern. The pattern achieved depends upon how tightly the fabric is bound and where the fabric is bound. If the cloth is first folded and then bound, the resulting circles will be a pattern created by the folds, creating a cross between a mandala and tie-dye.


Trial #3
1. Fabric cut 12″ x 90″.

2. Fold in triangles up the length of the fabric.

3. Bind the fabric in sections with synthetic sinew.

4. Soak in soda ash solution for 30 minutes.


5. Drip dye solution (25 mg/ml) on each section to form a color pattern.

6. Batch for 2 hours.


7. Rinse out excess dye with cold water. Wash with Blue Dawn in hot water.

 Trial #4
1. Fabric cut 36″ x 36″.

2. Fold the fabric as described for mandalas.

3. Pull fabric together in sections and bind with sinew.

4. Soak fabric in warmed soda ash solution for 30 minutes.

5. Place fabric in tray over bucket.

6. Cover with scrap fabric to collect undissolved dye particles.

7. Cover with 4″ of snow and sprinkle with 1 teaspoon of mixed dye powder (Mixing Blue, Royal Blue, Turquoise  and Green).

8. Place lid over the bucket and allow to sit at room temperature until snow is melted.

9. Pour 250 ml of warm soda ash solution over the fabric to help set the dye.

10. Rinse fabric in cold water. Wash in hot water with blue Dawn soap. Rinse, dry and iron.

Arashi Scarf and the Technique for Itajimi Shibori

Before I describe another Shibori technique, I thought I would show a photo of the Arashi Shibori Scarf from my last posting.

Very fun colors!

To refresh your memory, there are five major forms of Shibori –
Arashi
Itajimi
Kanoko
Kuno
Nui.


Itajimi is a shape-resist technique. The cloth is folded like an accordion and sandwiched between flat shapes which are held in place with string or clamps. The shapes prevent the dye from penetrating the fabric that they cover.

Trial #1
1. Fabric cut 9″ x 18″, folded in fourths lengthwise. Then folded in triangles.

2. Bind the triangle together with string or a rubber band.

3. Dip the corners into different colors
Turquoise: 20 ml at 4 mg/ml
Mixing Red: 20 ml at 3 mg/ml
Lilac: 20 ml at 1 mg/ml

4. Batch for 12 hours.

5. Rinse out excess dye with cold water. Wash with Blue Dawn in hot water.

Trial #2
1. Fabric cut 12″ x 90″.

2. Ends folded in fourths lengthwise. Then folded in accordion style with wooden discs inserted between each secondary fold.

2. Bind the bundles together with string or a rubber band.

3. Dip each end in a dye bath
(250 ml at 1 mg/ml)
Lilac
Fuchsia

4. Batch for 12 hours

5. Rinse out excess dye with cold water. Wash with Blue Dawn in hot water.

Resulting Scarf

 Trial #3
1. Fabric cut 12″ x 90″.

2. One end folded in fourths lengthwise. Then folded in accordion style with plastic stars inserted between each secondary fold, making sure that the star points match between the layers.

3. Clamp the fabric bundle together with a utility clamp.

 3. Dip the fabric bundle in a dye bath
250 ml at 5 mg/ml Mixing Blue

4. Batch for 12 hours

5. Rinse out excess dye with cold water. Wash with Blue Dawn in hot water.

My plan is to use another Shibori technique to dye stripes on the other end of this scarf.

That will be a project for another day.

Arashi Shibori – another wrapping technique

The previous posting described a technique for Arashi pole-wrapping that involved sewing the fabric to help scrunch it onto the pole.  Today, the pole wrapping technique will require no sewing.


1.  Fabric (12″ x 90″) is placed at an angle onto the PVC pipe (4″diameter), securing the beginning of the fabric with a rubber band.

2. The fabric is wrapped around the pipe and secured with string or floss wrapped every inch.

3. Scrunched the fabric down on the pipe as you continue to wrap the rest of the fabric up the length of the pipe.

4. Secure the opposite end of the fabric with another rubber band.

5. Soak in soda ash solution for 15 minute.

6. Squirt dye concentrate (25mg/ml) onto fabric, using about 20 ml per color.

7. Batch for 12 hours.
8. Rinse out excess dye with cold water. Wash with Blue Dawn in hot water.

Shibori Dye Resist

Shibori is a Japanese term for methods of dyeing fabric that include binding, stitching or folding the fabric prior to dyeing. The earliest known example of cloth dyed with shibori technique dates back to the 8th century when indigo was the main dye used. Tie-dye is a commonly used form of shibori.
There are an infinite number of ways one can bind, stitch, fold, twist or compress cloth for shibori and each way results in very different patterns. The results are also dependent upon the type of fabric used. Different techniques can be used in conjunction with one another to achieve even more elaborate results.
Types of shibori – Arashi, Itajimi, Kanoko, Kuno, and Nui.

Arashi (Japanese for “storm”) involved pole-wrapping. The fabric is wrapped around a pole or cylinder, then tightly bound and scrunched down on the pole prior to dyeing.





Technique:

1. PVC pipes with caps (to reduce the amount of dye needed)

2. Fabric cut 9″ x 90″, stitched together using a long stitch length to form a tube of fabric, and scrunched tightly on pipe.

Pole-wrapped fabric placed in dye bath for 10 minutes for each color
2 mg/ml, 350 ml

3. Mixing Blue
4. Mixing Red
5. Golden Yellow

6. Dyed fabric
7. Batch 4 hours on a heating plate.


Remove fabric from pole and remove stitching.
Rinse out excess dye with cold water.
Wash with Blue Dawn in hot water.

Resulting fabric!